Key Votes

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Vote Smart provides easy access to congressional and state voting records and maintains a collection of key votes grouped by issue. Vote Smart uses the following criteria to select key votes:

  1. The vote should be helpful in portraying how a member stands on a particular issue
  2. The vote should be clear for any person to understand
  3. The vote has received media attention
  4. The vote was passed or defeated by a very close margin
  5. Occasionally, if a specific bill is consistently inquired about on the Voter's Research Hotline, the vote will be added

Vote Smart provides a summary of the version of the bill text associated with each selected key vote. Our summaries are written by Vote Smart's staff and interns, who adhere to our strict policies and procedures in order to guarantee absolute impartiality and accuracy. They do not necessarily reflect the content of the final version of the bill, but rather the version voted on in that stage. While many procedural votes take place before a full chamber vote, our voting stages reflect the final reading of each chamber vote. Each key vote selection is reviewed by the project's community of advisors, who are political scientists and journalists from all fifty states.

For more information about the legislative process, see here.


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Date State Bill No. Title Outcome
Feb. 25, 1998 National H Amdt 497 Death Sentence Amendment Amendment Rejected - House (113 - 300)
March 27, 1998 National H Amdt 542 Road Construction Amendment Amendment Adopted - House (200 - 187)
April 1, 1998 National H Amdt 548 Disadvantaged Business Enterprise Program Amendment Amendment Rejected - House (194 - 225)
May 13, 1998 National H Amdt 621 Enhance Banking Flexibility Amendment Amendment Rejected - House (140 - 281)
May 20, 1998 National H Amdt 643 Abortion Private Funding Restoration Amendment Amendment Rejected - House (190 - 232)
June 17, 1998 National H Amdt 688 Campaign Finance Reform Commission Amendment Amendment Rejected - House (156 - 201)
Aug. 3, 1998 National H Amdt 690 Shays Amendment Amendment Adopted - House (237 - 186)
July 14, 1998 National H Amdt 694 Express Advocacy Amendment Amendment Rejected - House (201 - 219)
June 24, 1998 National H Amdt 705 Chemical Inducement of Abortion Amendment Amendment Adopted - House (223 - 202)
July 20, 1998 National H Amdt 716 Noncitizen Campaign Contribution Amendment Amendment Adopted - House (267 - 131)
July 16, 1998 National H Amdt 723 Increase FEC Funding Amendment Adopted - House (214 - 210)
July 16, 1998 National H Amdt 728 Federal Health Plan Contraceptive Coverage Amendment Amendment Adopted - House (224 - 198)
July 20, 1998 National H Amdt 744 Labor Political Activity Amendment Amendment Rejected - House (150 - 248)
July 30, 1998 National H Amdt 747 Voter Registration Amendment Amendment Rejected - House (165 - 260)
July 21, 1998 National H Amdt 753 National Endowment for the Arts Amendment Amendment Adopted - House (253 - 173)
July 24, 1998 National H Amdt 776 Patients' Bill of Rights Act Amendment Amendment Rejected - House (212 - 217)
Aug. 6, 1998 National H Amdt 862 Federal Campaign Finance Amendment Amendment Rejected - House (147 - 222)
Aug. 6, 1998 National H Amdt 865 Abortion Funding Amendment Amendment Rejected - House (180 - 243)
Aug. 7, 1998 National H Amdt 869 Illegal Drug Amendment Amendment Adopted - House (250 - 169)
Aug. 7, 1998 National H Amdt 871 Adoption Amendment Amendment Adopted - House (227 - 192)
Aug. 6, 1998 National H Amdt 874 Low Income Educational Scholarship Amendment Amendment Adopted - House (214 - 208)
Sept. 16, 1998 National H Amdt 887 Illegal Drug Amendment Amendment Adopted - House (291 - 133)
Sept. 17, 1998 National H Amdt 907 US Army School of the Americas Amendment Amendment Rejected - House (201 - 212)
Sept. 25, 1998 National H Amdt 914 Save Social Security Act Amendment Amendment Rejected - House (210 - 216)
Oct. 8, 1998 National H Amdt 923 Contraceptive Amendment Amendment Adopted - House (224 - 200)
March 18, 1998 National H Con Res 227 Bosnia and Herzegovina U.S. Troop Removal Resolution Resolution Failed - House (193 - 225)
June 5, 1998 National H Con Res 284 Budget Resolution FY98 Resolution Passed - House (216 - 204)
June 4, 1998 National H Con Res 285 Tiananmen Square Resolution Resolution Passed - House (305 - 116)
April 22, 1998 National H J Res 111 Tax Limitation Amendment Joint Resolution Failed - House (238 - 186)
July 30, 1998 National H J Res 120 Vietnam Trade Waiver Disapproval resolution Joint Resolution Failed - House (163 - 260)
July 22, 1998 National H J Res 121 Disapproval of 'Normal Trade Relations' Status with China Joint Resolution Failed - House (166 - 264)
June 4, 1998 National H J Res 78 Religious Freedom Constitutional Amendment Joint Resolution Failed - House (224 - 203)
May 13, 1998 National HR 10 Financial Services Act of 1998 Bill Passed - House (214 - 213)
July 23, 1998 National HR 1122 Partial-Birth/Late-Term Abortion bill Veto Override Passed - House (296 - 132)
Sept. 18, 1998 National HR 1122 Partial-Birth/Late-Term Abortion bill Veto Override Failed - Senate (64 - 36)
Oct. 5, 1998 National HR 1154 Indian Federal Recognition Administrative Procedures Bill Failed - House (190 - 208)
May 5, 1998 National HR 1385 Training Programs bill Bill Passed - Senate (91 - 7)
March 11, 1998 National HR 1432 African Growth bill Bill Passed - House (233 - 186)
April 28, 1998 National HR 1757 State Department FY98-99 Authorization bill Conference Report Adopted - Senate (51 - 49)
Aug. 6, 1998 National HR 2183 Campaign Finance Reform bill Bill Passed - House (252 - 179)
May 22, 1998 National HR 2400 Transportation Reauthorization bill Conference Report Adopted - Senate (88 - 5)
May 22, 1998 National HR 2400 Transportation Reauthorization bill Conference Report Adopted - House (297 - 86)
April 1, 1998 National HR 2400 Transportation Reauthorization bill Bill Passed - House (337 - 80)
May 14, 1998 National HR 2431 Religious Freedom Bill Passed - House (375 - 41)
March 27, 1998 National HR 2515 Forest Recovery and Protection bill Bill Failed - House (181 - 201)
Sept. 25, 1998 National HR 2621 Reciprocal Trade Agreement Bill Bill Failed - House (180 - 243)
Feb. 5, 1998 National HR 2631 Line Item Veto Cancellation bill Veto Override Passed - House (347 - 69)
Feb. 25, 1998 National HR 2631 Line Item Veto Cancellation bill Veto Override Passed - Senate (78 - 20)
June 18, 1998 National HR 2646 Education Savings Accounts bill Conference Report Adopted - House (225 - 197)
June 24, 1998 National HR 2646 Education Savings Accounts bill Conference Report Adopted - Senate (59 - 36)
April 23, 1998 National HR 2646 Education Savings Accounts bill Bill Passed - Senate (56 - 43)
May 22, 1998 National HR 2709 Iran Missile Sanctions bill Bill Passed - Senate (90 - 4)
Feb. 5, 1998 National HR 2846 National Student Testing bill Bill Passed - House (242 - 174)
June 17, 1998 National HR 3097 Tax Code Termination bill Bill Passed - House (219 - 209)
Oct. 9, 1998 National HR 3150 Bankruptcy Reform bill Conference Report Adopted - House (300 - 125)
March 26, 1998 National HR 3246 Small Business and Employee Fairness bill Bill Passed - House (202 - 200)
April 30, 1998 National HR 3579 Emergency Supplemental Appropriations bill Conference Report Adopted - House (242 - 163)
April 30, 1998 National HR 3579 Emergency Supplemental Appropriations bill Conference Report Adopted - Senate (88 - 11)
March 31, 1998 National HR 3579 Emergency Supplemental Appropriations bill Bill Passed - House (212 - 208)
March 30, 1998 National HR 3581 Campaign Finance Reform bill Bill Failed - House (74 - 337)
March 30, 1998 National HR 3582 Campaign Reporting and Disclosure Act of 1998 Bill Passed - House (405 - 6)
Sept. 24, 1998 National HR 3616 Defense Department FY99 Authorization bill Conference Report Adopted - House (373 - 50)
Oct. 1, 1998 National HR 3616 Defense Department FY99 Authorization bill Conference Report Adopted - Senate (96 - 2)
May 21, 1998 National HR 3616 Defense Department FY99 Authorization bill Bill Passed - House (357 - 60)
July 15, 1998 National HR 3682 Child Custody Protection Act Bill Passed - House (276 - 150)
Oct. 7, 1998 National HR 3694 Intelligence FY99 Authorization bill Conference Report Adopted - House (337 - 83)
April 29, 1998 National HR 3717 Needle Exchange Funding Ban Bill Passed - House (287 - 140)
Sept. 24, 1998 National HR 3736 Nonimmigrant Specialty Workers bill Bill Passed - House (288 - 133)
June 22, 1998 National HR 4059 Military Construction FY99 Appropriations bill Bill Passed - House (396 - 10)
Sept. 28, 1998 National HR 4060 Energy FY99 Appropriations bill Conference Report Adopted - House (389 - 25)
June 22, 1998 National HR 4060 Energy FY99 Appropriations bill Bill Passed - House (405 - 4)
Oct. 2, 1998 National HR 4101 Agriculture FY99 Appropriations bill Conference Report Adopted - House (333 - 53)
Oct. 6, 1998 National HR 4101 Agriculture FY99 Appropriations bill Conference Report Adopted - Senate (55 - 43)
June 24, 1998 National HR 4101 Agriculture FY99 Appropriations bill Bill Passed - House (373 - 48)
Sept. 28, 1998 National HR 4103 Defense Department FY99 Appropriations bill Conference Report Adopted - House (369 - 43)
Sept. 29, 1998 National HR 4103 Defense Department FY99 Appropriations bill Conference Report Adopted - Senate (94 - 2)
June 24, 1998 National HR 4103 Defense Department FY99 Appropriations bill Bill Passed - House (358 - 61)
Oct. 7, 1998 National HR 4104 Appropriations bill FY99, Treasury, Postal Service Conference Report Adopted - House (290 - 137)
Sept. 3, 1998 National HR 4104 Appropriations bill FY99, Treasury, Postal Service Bill Passed - Senate (91 - 5)
July 16, 1998 National HR 4104 Appropriations bill FY99, Treasury, Postal Service Bill Passed - House (218 - 203)
Sept. 24, 1998 National HR 4112 Legislative Branch FY99 Appropriations bill Conference Report Adopted - House (356 - 65)
July 21, 1998 National HR 4112 Legislative Branch FY99 Appropriations bill Bill Passed - Senate (90 - 9)
June 25, 1998 National HR 4112 Legislative Branch FY99 Appropriations bill Bill Passed - House (235 - 179)
July 23, 1998 National HR 4193 Interior Department FY99 Appropriations bill Bill Passed - House (245 - 181)
Oct. 6, 1998 National HR 4194 FY 1999 VA-HUD Appropriations Conference Report Adopted - House (409 - 14)
Oct. 8, 1998 National HR 4194 FY 1999 VA-HUD Appropriations Conference Report Adopted - Senate (96 - 1)
July 29, 1998 National HR 4194 Appropriations bill FY99, Veterans Affairs, HUD Bill Passed - House (259 - 164)
Feb. 24, 1998 National HR 424 Minimum Sentences for Gun Crimes Bill Passed - House (350 - 59)
July 24, 1998 National HR 4250 Patient Protection bill Bill Passed - House (216 - 210)
Oct. 20, 1998 National HR 4328 Appropriations bill FY99, Omnibus Conference Report Adopted - House (333 - 95)
Oct. 21, 1998 National HR 4328 Appropriations bill FY99, Omnibus Conference Report Adopted - Senate (65 - 29)
Aug. 7, 1998 National HR 4380 District of Columbia FY99 Appropriations bill Bill Passed - House (214 - 206)
Sept. 17, 1998 National HR 4569 Appropriations Bill FY99, Foreign Operations Bill Passed - House (255 - 161)
Sept. 25, 1998 National HR 4578 Social Security Account Protection bill Bill Passed - House (240 - 188)
Sept. 26, 1998 National HR 4579 Tax Cut bill Bill Passed - House (229 - 195)
Oct. 5, 1998 National HR 4655 Iraqi Liberation Act of 1998 Bill Passed - House (360 - 38)
Sept. 29, 1998 National HR 6 Higher Education Programs Authorization Extension bill Conference Report Adopted - Senate (96 - 0)
July 9, 1998 National HR 6 Higher Education Programs Authorization Extension bill Bill Passed - Senate (96 - 1)
May 6, 1998 National HR 6 Higher Education Programs Authorization Extension bill Bill Passed - House (414 - 4)
March 4, 1998 National HR 856 Puerto Rico Political Status bill Bill Passed - House (209 - 208)
Date No. Title Outcome
2/25 H Amdt 497 Death Sentence Amendment Amendment Rejected - House (113 - 300)
3/27 H Amdt 542 Road Construction Amendment Amendment Adopted - House (200 - 187)
4/01 H Amdt 548 Disadvantaged Business Enterprise Program Amendment Amendment Rejected - House (194 - 225)
5/13 H Amdt 621 Enhance Banking Flexibility Amendment Amendment Rejected - House (140 - 281)
5/20 H Amdt 643 Abortion Private Funding Restoration Amendment Amendment Rejected - House (190 - 232)
6/17 H Amdt 688 Campaign Finance Reform Commission Amendment Amendment Rejected - House (156 - 201)
8/03 H Amdt 690 Shays Amendment Amendment Adopted - House (237 - 186)
7/14 H Amdt 694 Express Advocacy Amendment Amendment Rejected - House (201 - 219)
6/24 H Amdt 705 Chemical Inducement of Abortion Amendment Amendment Adopted - House (223 - 202)
7/20 H Amdt 716 Noncitizen Campaign Contribution Amendment Amendment Adopted - House (267 - 131)
7/16 H Amdt 723 Increase FEC Funding Amendment Adopted - House (214 - 210)
7/16 H Amdt 728 Federal Health Plan Contraceptive Coverage Amendment Amendment Adopted - House (224 - 198)
7/20 H Amdt 744 Labor Political Activity Amendment Amendment Rejected - House (150 - 248)
7/30 H Amdt 747 Voter Registration Amendment Amendment Rejected - House (165 - 260)
7/21 H Amdt 753 National Endowment for the Arts Amendment Amendment Adopted - House (253 - 173)
7/24 H Amdt 776 Patients' Bill of Rights Act Amendment Amendment Rejected - House (212 - 217)
8/06 H Amdt 862 Federal Campaign Finance Amendment Amendment Rejected - House (147 - 222)
8/06 H Amdt 865 Abortion Funding Amendment Amendment Rejected - House (180 - 243)
8/07 H Amdt 869 Illegal Drug Amendment Amendment Adopted - House (250 - 169)
8/07 H Amdt 871 Adoption Amendment Amendment Adopted - House (227 - 192)
8/06 H Amdt 874 Low Income Educational Scholarship Amendment Amendment Adopted - House (214 - 208)
9/16 H Amdt 887 Illegal Drug Amendment Amendment Adopted - House (291 - 133)
9/17 H Amdt 907 US Army School of the Americas Amendment Amendment Rejected - House (201 - 212)
9/25 H Amdt 914 Save Social Security Act Amendment Amendment Rejected - House (210 - 216)
10/08 H Amdt 923 Contraceptive Amendment Amendment Adopted - House (224 - 200)
3/18 H Con Res 227 Bosnia and Herzegovina U.S. Troop Removal Resolution Resolution Failed - House (193 - 225)
6/05 H Con Res 284 Budget Resolution FY98 Resolution Passed - House (216 - 204)
6/04 H Con Res 285 Tiananmen Square Resolution Resolution Passed - House (305 - 116)
4/22 H J Res 111 Tax Limitation Amendment Joint Resolution Failed - House (238 - 186)
7/30 H J Res 120 Vietnam Trade Waiver Disapproval resolution Joint Resolution Failed - House (163 - 260)
7/22 H J Res 121 Disapproval of 'Normal Trade Relations' Status with China Joint Resolution Failed - House (166 - 264)
6/04 H J Res 78 Religious Freedom Constitutional Amendment Joint Resolution Failed - House (224 - 203)
5/13 HR 10 Financial Services Act of 1998 Bill Passed - House (214 - 213)
7/23 HR 1122 Partial-Birth/Late-Term Abortion bill Veto Override Passed - House (296 - 132)
9/18 HR 1122 Partial-Birth/Late-Term Abortion bill Veto Override Failed - Senate (64 - 36)
10/05 HR 1154 Indian Federal Recognition Administrative Procedures Bill Failed - House (190 - 208)
5/05 HR 1385 Training Programs bill Bill Passed - Senate (91 - 7)
3/11 HR 1432 African Growth bill Bill Passed - House (233 - 186)
4/28 HR 1757 State Department FY98-99 Authorization bill Conference Report Adopted - Senate (51 - 49)
8/06 HR 2183 Campaign Finance Reform bill Bill Passed - House (252 - 179)
5/22 HR 2400 Transportation Reauthorization bill Conference Report Adopted - Senate (88 - 5)
5/22 HR 2400 Transportation Reauthorization bill Conference Report Adopted - House (297 - 86)
4/01 HR 2400 Transportation Reauthorization bill Bill Passed - House (337 - 80)
5/14 HR 2431 Religious Freedom Bill Passed - House (375 - 41)
3/27 HR 2515 Forest Recovery and Protection bill Bill Failed - House (181 - 201)
9/25 HR 2621 Reciprocal Trade Agreement Bill Bill Failed - House (180 - 243)
2/05 HR 2631 Line Item Veto Cancellation bill Veto Override Passed - House (347 - 69)
2/25 HR 2631 Line Item Veto Cancellation bill Veto Override Passed - Senate (78 - 20)
6/18 HR 2646 Education Savings Accounts bill Conference Report Adopted - House (225 - 197)
6/24 HR 2646 Education Savings Accounts bill Conference Report Adopted - Senate (59 - 36)
4/23 HR 2646 Education Savings Accounts bill Bill Passed - Senate (56 - 43)
5/22 HR 2709 Iran Missile Sanctions bill Bill Passed - Senate (90 - 4)
2/05 HR 2846 National Student Testing bill Bill Passed - House (242 - 174)
6/17 HR 3097 Tax Code Termination bill Bill Passed - House (219 - 209)
10/09 HR 3150 Bankruptcy Reform bill Conference Report Adopted - House (300 - 125)
3/26 HR 3246 Small Business and Employee Fairness bill Bill Passed - House (202 - 200)
4/30 HR 3579 Emergency Supplemental Appropriations bill Conference Report Adopted - House (242 - 163)
4/30 HR 3579 Emergency Supplemental Appropriations bill Conference Report Adopted - Senate (88 - 11)
3/31 HR 3579 Emergency Supplemental Appropriations bill Bill Passed - House (212 - 208)
3/30 HR 3581 Campaign Finance Reform bill Bill Failed - House (74 - 337)
3/30 HR 3582 Campaign Reporting and Disclosure Act of 1998 Bill Passed - House (405 - 6)
9/24 HR 3616 Defense Department FY99 Authorization bill Conference Report Adopted - House (373 - 50)
10/01 HR 3616 Defense Department FY99 Authorization bill Conference Report Adopted - Senate (96 - 2)
5/21 HR 3616 Defense Department FY99 Authorization bill Bill Passed - House (357 - 60)
7/15 HR 3682 Child Custody Protection Act Bill Passed - House (276 - 150)
10/07 HR 3694 Intelligence FY99 Authorization bill Conference Report Adopted - House (337 - 83)
4/29 HR 3717 Needle Exchange Funding Ban Bill Passed - House (287 - 140)
9/24 HR 3736 Nonimmigrant Specialty Workers bill Bill Passed - House (288 - 133)
6/22 HR 4059 Military Construction FY99 Appropriations bill Bill Passed - House (396 - 10)
9/28 HR 4060 Energy FY99 Appropriations bill Conference Report Adopted - House (389 - 25)
6/22 HR 4060 Energy FY99 Appropriations bill Bill Passed - House (405 - 4)
10/02 HR 4101 Agriculture FY99 Appropriations bill Conference Report Adopted - House (333 - 53)
10/06 HR 4101 Agriculture FY99 Appropriations bill Conference Report Adopted - Senate (55 - 43)
6/24 HR 4101 Agriculture FY99 Appropriations bill Bill Passed - House (373 - 48)
9/28 HR 4103 Defense Department FY99 Appropriations bill Conference Report Adopted - House (369 - 43)
9/29 HR 4103 Defense Department FY99 Appropriations bill Conference Report Adopted - Senate (94 - 2)
6/24 HR 4103 Defense Department FY99 Appropriations bill Bill Passed - House (358 - 61)
10/07 HR 4104 Appropriations bill FY99, Treasury, Postal Service Conference Report Adopted - House (290 - 137)
9/03 HR 4104 Appropriations bill FY99, Treasury, Postal Service Bill Passed - Senate (91 - 5)
7/16 HR 4104 Appropriations bill FY99, Treasury, Postal Service Bill Passed - House (218 - 203)
9/24 HR 4112 Legislative Branch FY99 Appropriations bill Conference Report Adopted - House (356 - 65)
7/21 HR 4112 Legislative Branch FY99 Appropriations bill Bill Passed - Senate (90 - 9)
6/25 HR 4112 Legislative Branch FY99 Appropriations bill Bill Passed - House (235 - 179)
7/23 HR 4193 Interior Department FY99 Appropriations bill Bill Passed - House (245 - 181)
10/06 HR 4194 FY 1999 VA-HUD Appropriations Conference Report Adopted - House (409 - 14)
10/08 HR 4194 FY 1999 VA-HUD Appropriations Conference Report Adopted - Senate (96 - 1)
7/29 HR 4194 Appropriations bill FY99, Veterans Affairs, HUD Bill Passed - House (259 - 164)
2/24 HR 424 Minimum Sentences for Gun Crimes Bill Passed - House (350 - 59)
7/24 HR 4250 Patient Protection bill Bill Passed - House (216 - 210)
10/20 HR 4328 Appropriations bill FY99, Omnibus Conference Report Adopted - House (333 - 95)
10/21 HR 4328 Appropriations bill FY99, Omnibus Conference Report Adopted - Senate (65 - 29)
8/07 HR 4380 District of Columbia FY99 Appropriations bill Bill Passed - House (214 - 206)
9/17 HR 4569 Appropriations Bill FY99, Foreign Operations Bill Passed - House (255 - 161)
9/25 HR 4578 Social Security Account Protection bill Bill Passed - House (240 - 188)
9/26 HR 4579 Tax Cut bill Bill Passed - House (229 - 195)
10/05 HR 4655 Iraqi Liberation Act of 1998 Bill Passed - House (360 - 38)
9/29 HR 6 Higher Education Programs Authorization Extension bill Conference Report Adopted - Senate (96 - 0)
7/09 HR 6 Higher Education Programs Authorization Extension bill Bill Passed - Senate (96 - 1)
5/06 HR 6 Higher Education Programs Authorization Extension bill Bill Passed - House (414 - 4)
3/04 HR 856 Puerto Rico Political Status bill Bill Passed - House (209 - 208)

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