Key Votes

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Vote Smart provides easy access to congressional and state voting records and maintains a collection of key votes grouped by issue. Vote Smart uses the following criteria to select key votes:

  1. The vote should be helpful in portraying how a member stands on a particular issue
  2. The vote should be clear for any person to understand
  3. The vote has received media attention
  4. The vote was passed or defeated by a very close margin
  5. Occasionally, if a specific bill is consistently inquired about on the Voter's Research Hotline, the vote will be added

Vote Smart provides a summary of the version of the bill text associated with each selected key vote. Our summaries are written by Vote Smart's staff and interns, who adhere to our strict policies and procedures in order to guarantee absolute impartiality and accuracy. They do not necessarily reflect the content of the final version of the bill, but rather the version voted on in that stage. While many procedural votes take place before a full chamber vote, our voting stages reflect the final reading of each chamber vote. Each key vote selection is reviewed by the project's community of advisors, who are political scientists and journalists from all fifty states.

For more information about the legislative process, see here.


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Date State Bill No. Title Outcome
July 23, 1998 National HR 1122 Partial-Birth/Late-Term Abortion bill Veto Override Passed - House (296 - 132)
Feb. 25, 1998 National HR 2631 Line Item Veto Cancellation bill Veto Override Passed - Senate (78 - 20)
Feb. 5, 1998 National HR 2631 Line Item Veto Cancellation bill Veto Override Passed - House (347 - 69)
Feb. 10, 1998 National PN 623 David Satcher, Surgeon General of the Public Health Service Nomination Confirmed - Senate (63 - 35)
June 24, 1998 National S Amdt 2912 Bosnia and Herzegovina Withdrawal Amendment Amendment Tabled - Senate (65 - 31)
July 21, 1998 National S Amdt 3230 Gun Lock Requirement Amendment Amendment Tabled - Senate (61 - 39)
April 1, 1998 National S Amdt 2175 School Modernization Amendment Amendment Tabled - Senate (54 - 46)
March 6, 1998 National S Amdt 1708 Disadvantaged Business Enterprises Amendment Amendment Tabled - Senate (58 - 37)
May 18, 1998 National S Amdt 2417 U.S. Citizen Recruitment Amendment Amendment Tabled - Senate (59 - 39)
Aug. 6, 1998 National H Amdt 874 Low Income Educational Scholarship Amendment Amendment Adopted - House (214 - 208)
July 16, 1998 National H Amdt 728 Federal Health Plan Contraceptive Coverage Amendment Amendment Adopted - House (224 - 198)
June 25, 1998 National S Amdt 2981 Military Closure Amendment Amendment Adopted - Senate (48 - 45)
June 24, 1998 National H Amdt 705 Chemical Inducement of Abortion Amendment Amendment Adopted - House (223 - 202)
Oct. 8, 1998 National H Amdt 923 Contraceptive Amendment Amendment Adopted - House (224 - 200)
March 4, 1998 National S Amdt 1682 Blood Alcohol Content Amendment Amendment Adopted - Senate (62 - 32)
March 12, 1998 National S Amdt 1676 Intermodal Transportation Amendment Amendment Adopted - Senate (96 - 4)
March 27, 1998 National H Amdt 542 Road Construction Amendment Amendment Adopted - House (200 - 187)
March 31, 1998 National S Amdt 2168 Tobacco Immunity Amendment Amendment Adopted - Senate (79 - 19)
April 1, 1998 National S Amdt 2169 Medicare Choices Amendment Amendment Adopted - Senate (51 - 47)
April 1, 1998 National S Amdt 2209 Personal Retirement Accounts Amendment Amendment Adopted - Senate (51 - 49)
Sept. 16, 1998 National H Amdt 887 Illegal Drug Amendment Amendment Adopted - House (291 - 133)
Sept. 1, 1998 National S Amdt 3506 Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Amendment Amendment Adopted - Senate (49 - 44)
Aug. 7, 1998 National H Amdt 869 Illegal Drug Amendment Amendment Adopted - House (250 - 169)
Aug. 7, 1998 National H Amdt 871 Adoption Amendment Amendment Adopted - House (227 - 192)
July 16, 1998 National H Amdt 723 Increase FEC Funding Amendment Adopted - House (214 - 210)
Aug. 3, 1998 National H Amdt 690 Shays Amendment Amendment Adopted - House (237 - 186)
July 23, 1998 National S Amdt 3258 Temporary Farm Workers Amendment Amendment Adopted - Senate (68 - 31)
July 23, 1998 National S Amdt 3266 Internet Gambling Amendment Amendment Adopted - Senate (90 - 10)
July 21, 1998 National H Amdt 753 National Endowment for the Arts Amendment Amendment Adopted - House (253 - 173)
July 20, 1998 National H Amdt 716 Noncitizen Campaign Contribution Amendment Amendment Adopted - House (267 - 131)
June 9, 1998 National S Amdt 2451 Illegal Drug Amendment Amendment Adopted - Senate (52 - 46)
Oct. 7, 1998 National HR 3694 Intelligence FY99 Authorization bill Conference Report Adopted - House (337 - 83)
April 28, 1998 National HR 1757 State Department FY98-99 Authorization bill Conference Report Adopted - Senate (51 - 49)
Oct. 21, 1998 National HR 4328 Appropriations bill FY99, Omnibus Conference Report Adopted - Senate (65 - 29)
April 30, 1998 National HR 3579 Emergency Supplemental Appropriations bill Conference Report Adopted - House (242 - 163)
June 18, 1998 National HR 2646 Education Savings Accounts bill Conference Report Adopted - House (225 - 197)
April 30, 1998 National HR 3579 Emergency Supplemental Appropriations bill Conference Report Adopted - Senate (88 - 11)
Oct. 20, 1998 National HR 4328 Appropriations bill FY99, Omnibus Conference Report Adopted - House (333 - 95)
May 22, 1998 National HR 2400 Transportation Reauthorization bill Conference Report Adopted - House (297 - 86)
May 12, 1998 National S 1150 Agricultural Research bill Conference Report Adopted - Senate (92 - 8)
Oct. 13, 1998 National S 1260 Securities Litigation Conference Report Adopted - House (319 - 82)
Oct. 9, 1998 National HR 3150 Bankruptcy Reform bill Conference Report Adopted - House (300 - 125)
Oct. 6, 1998 National HR 4101 Agriculture FY99 Appropriations bill Conference Report Adopted - Senate (55 - 43)
Oct. 2, 1998 National HR 4101 Agriculture FY99 Appropriations bill Conference Report Adopted - House (333 - 53)
May 22, 1998 National HR 2400 Transportation Reauthorization bill Conference Report Adopted - Senate (88 - 5)
Oct. 1, 1998 National HR 3616 Defense Department FY99 Authorization bill Conference Report Adopted - Senate (96 - 2)
Sept. 29, 1998 National HR 6 Higher Education Programs Authorization Extension bill Conference Report Adopted - Senate (96 - 0)
Sept. 29, 1998 National HR 4103 Defense Department FY99 Appropriations bill Conference Report Adopted - Senate (94 - 2)
June 4, 1998 National S 1150 Agricultural Research bill Conference Report Adopted - House (364 - 50)
Sept. 28, 1998 National HR 4060 Energy FY99 Appropriations bill Conference Report Adopted - House (389 - 25)
Sept. 28, 1998 National HR 4103 Defense Department FY99 Appropriations bill Conference Report Adopted - House (369 - 43)
Oct. 7, 1998 National HR 4104 Appropriations bill FY99, Treasury, Postal Service Conference Report Adopted - House (290 - 137)
Sept. 24, 1998 National HR 3616 Defense Department FY99 Authorization bill Conference Report Adopted - House (373 - 50)
Oct. 8, 1998 National HR 4194 FY 1999 VA-HUD Appropriations Conference Report Adopted - Senate (96 - 1)
Oct. 6, 1998 National HR 4194 FY 1999 VA-HUD Appropriations Conference Report Adopted - House (409 - 14)
Sept. 24, 1998 National HR 4112 Legislative Branch FY99 Appropriations bill Conference Report Adopted - House (356 - 65)
June 24, 1998 National HR 2646 Education Savings Accounts bill Conference Report Adopted - Senate (59 - 36)
Sept. 15, 1998 National S 2073 Juvenile Crime Control and Delinquency Prevention Act Bill Passed - House (280 - 126)
March 13, 1998 National S Con Res 78 Saddam Hussein War Crime Prosecution bill Resolution Passed - Senate (93 - 0)
April 23, 1998 National HR 2646 Education Savings Accounts bill Bill Passed - Senate (56 - 43)
May 5, 1998 National HR 1385 Training Programs bill Bill Passed - Senate (91 - 7)
May 13, 1998 National S 1260 Securities Litigation Bill Passed - Senate (79 - 21)
May 18, 1998 National S 1723 Non-Immigrant Specialty Workers bill Bill Passed - Senate (78 - 20)
May 22, 1998 National HR 2709 Iran Missile Sanctions bill Bill Passed - Senate (90 - 4)
July 9, 1998 National HR 6 Higher Education Programs Authorization Extension bill Bill Passed - Senate (96 - 1)
July 21, 1998 National HR 4112 Legislative Branch FY99 Appropriations bill Bill Passed - Senate (90 - 9)
Sept. 3, 1998 National HR 4104 Appropriations bill FY99, Treasury, Postal Service Bill Passed - Senate (91 - 5)
Oct. 8, 1998 National S 442 Internet Tax Freedom bill Bill Passed - Senate (96 - 2)
May 21, 1998 National HR 3616 Defense Department FY99 Authorization bill Bill Passed - House (357 - 60)
June 25, 1998 National HR 4112 Legislative Branch FY99 Appropriations bill Bill Passed - House (235 - 179)
Dec. 19, 1998 National H Res 611 Impeachment Resolution: Article Three Resolution Passed - House (221 - 212)
July 15, 1998 National HR 3682 Child Custody Protection Act Bill Passed - House (276 - 150)
June 17, 1998 National HR 3097 Tax Code Termination bill Bill Passed - House (219 - 209)
July 16, 1998 National HR 4104 Appropriations bill FY99, Treasury, Postal Service Bill Passed - House (218 - 203)
June 5, 1998 National H Con Res 284 Budget Resolution FY98 Resolution Passed - House (216 - 204)
June 4, 1998 National H Con Res 285 Tiananmen Square Resolution Resolution Passed - House (305 - 116)
July 23, 1998 National HR 4193 Interior Department FY99 Appropriations bill Bill Passed - House (245 - 181)
July 24, 1998 National HR 4250 Patient Protection bill Bill Passed - House (216 - 210)
July 29, 1998 National HR 4194 Appropriations bill FY99, Veterans Affairs, HUD Bill Passed - House (259 - 164)
May 14, 1998 National HR 2431 Religious Freedom Bill Passed - House (375 - 41)
May 13, 1998 National HR 10 Financial Services Act of 1998 Bill Passed - House (214 - 213)
Aug. 6, 1998 National HR 2183 Campaign Finance Reform bill Bill Passed - House (252 - 179)
Aug. 7, 1998 National HR 4380 District of Columbia FY99 Appropriations bill Bill Passed - House (214 - 206)
May 6, 1998 National HR 6 Higher Education Programs Authorization Extension bill Bill Passed - House (414 - 4)
April 30, 1998 National S 1502 Washington, D.C. School Vouchers bill Bill Passed - House (214 - 206)
April 29, 1998 National HR 3717 Needle Exchange Funding Ban Bill Passed - House (287 - 140)
Sept. 17, 1998 National HR 4569 Appropriations Bill FY99, Foreign Operations Bill Passed - House (255 - 161)
April 2, 1998 National S Con Res 86 Budget Resolution FY99 Resolution Passed - Senate (57 - 41)
Sept. 24, 1998 National HR 3736 Nonimmigrant Specialty Workers bill Bill Passed - House (288 - 133)
Sept. 25, 1998 National HR 4578 Social Security Account Protection bill Bill Passed - House (240 - 188)
Sept. 26, 1998 National HR 4579 Tax Cut bill Bill Passed - House (229 - 195)
April 1, 1998 National HR 2400 Transportation Reauthorization bill Bill Passed - House (337 - 80)
March 31, 1998 National HR 3579 Emergency Supplemental Appropriations bill Bill Passed - House (212 - 208)
March 30, 1998 National HR 3582 Campaign Reporting and Disclosure Act of 1998 Bill Passed - House (405 - 6)
Oct. 5, 1998 National HR 4655 Iraqi Liberation Act of 1998 Bill Passed - House (360 - 38)
March 26, 1998 National HR 3246 Small Business and Employee Fairness bill Bill Passed - House (202 - 200)
March 17, 1998 National H Res 364 Human Rights in China Resolution Passed - House (397 - 0)
March 11, 1998 National HR 1432 African Growth bill Bill Passed - House (233 - 186)
Dec. 19, 1998 National H Res 611 Impeachment Resolution: Article Three Resolution Passed - House (228 - 206)
March 4, 1998 National HR 856 Puerto Rico Political Status bill Bill Passed - House (209 - 208)
Date No. Title Outcome
7/23 HR 1122 Partial-Birth/Late-Term Abortion bill Veto Override Passed - House (296 - 132)
2/25 HR 2631 Line Item Veto Cancellation bill Veto Override Passed - Senate (78 - 20)
2/05 HR 2631 Line Item Veto Cancellation bill Veto Override Passed - House (347 - 69)
2/10 PN 623 David Satcher, Surgeon General of the Public Health Service Nomination Confirmed - Senate (63 - 35)
6/24 S Amdt 2912 Bosnia and Herzegovina Withdrawal Amendment Amendment Tabled - Senate (65 - 31)
7/21 S Amdt 3230 Gun Lock Requirement Amendment Amendment Tabled - Senate (61 - 39)
4/01 S Amdt 2175 School Modernization Amendment Amendment Tabled - Senate (54 - 46)
3/06 S Amdt 1708 Disadvantaged Business Enterprises Amendment Amendment Tabled - Senate (58 - 37)
5/18 S Amdt 2417 U.S. Citizen Recruitment Amendment Amendment Tabled - Senate (59 - 39)
8/06 H Amdt 874 Low Income Educational Scholarship Amendment Amendment Adopted - House (214 - 208)
7/16 H Amdt 728 Federal Health Plan Contraceptive Coverage Amendment Amendment Adopted - House (224 - 198)
6/25 S Amdt 2981 Military Closure Amendment Amendment Adopted - Senate (48 - 45)
6/24 H Amdt 705 Chemical Inducement of Abortion Amendment Amendment Adopted - House (223 - 202)
10/08 H Amdt 923 Contraceptive Amendment Amendment Adopted - House (224 - 200)
3/04 S Amdt 1682 Blood Alcohol Content Amendment Amendment Adopted - Senate (62 - 32)
3/12 S Amdt 1676 Intermodal Transportation Amendment Amendment Adopted - Senate (96 - 4)
3/27 H Amdt 542 Road Construction Amendment Amendment Adopted - House (200 - 187)
3/31 S Amdt 2168 Tobacco Immunity Amendment Amendment Adopted - Senate (79 - 19)
4/01 S Amdt 2169 Medicare Choices Amendment Amendment Adopted - Senate (51 - 47)
4/01 S Amdt 2209 Personal Retirement Accounts Amendment Amendment Adopted - Senate (51 - 49)
9/16 H Amdt 887 Illegal Drug Amendment Amendment Adopted - House (291 - 133)
9/01 S Amdt 3506 Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Amendment Amendment Adopted - Senate (49 - 44)
8/07 H Amdt 869 Illegal Drug Amendment Amendment Adopted - House (250 - 169)
8/07 H Amdt 871 Adoption Amendment Amendment Adopted - House (227 - 192)
7/16 H Amdt 723 Increase FEC Funding Amendment Adopted - House (214 - 210)
8/03 H Amdt 690 Shays Amendment Amendment Adopted - House (237 - 186)
7/23 S Amdt 3258 Temporary Farm Workers Amendment Amendment Adopted - Senate (68 - 31)
7/23 S Amdt 3266 Internet Gambling Amendment Amendment Adopted - Senate (90 - 10)
7/21 H Amdt 753 National Endowment for the Arts Amendment Amendment Adopted - House (253 - 173)
7/20 H Amdt 716 Noncitizen Campaign Contribution Amendment Amendment Adopted - House (267 - 131)
6/09 S Amdt 2451 Illegal Drug Amendment Amendment Adopted - Senate (52 - 46)
10/07 HR 3694 Intelligence FY99 Authorization bill Conference Report Adopted - House (337 - 83)
4/28 HR 1757 State Department FY98-99 Authorization bill Conference Report Adopted - Senate (51 - 49)
10/21 HR 4328 Appropriations bill FY99, Omnibus Conference Report Adopted - Senate (65 - 29)
4/30 HR 3579 Emergency Supplemental Appropriations bill Conference Report Adopted - House (242 - 163)
6/18 HR 2646 Education Savings Accounts bill Conference Report Adopted - House (225 - 197)
4/30 HR 3579 Emergency Supplemental Appropriations bill Conference Report Adopted - Senate (88 - 11)
10/20 HR 4328 Appropriations bill FY99, Omnibus Conference Report Adopted - House (333 - 95)
5/22 HR 2400 Transportation Reauthorization bill Conference Report Adopted - House (297 - 86)
5/12 S 1150 Agricultural Research bill Conference Report Adopted - Senate (92 - 8)
10/13 S 1260 Securities Litigation Conference Report Adopted - House (319 - 82)
10/09 HR 3150 Bankruptcy Reform bill Conference Report Adopted - House (300 - 125)
10/06 HR 4101 Agriculture FY99 Appropriations bill Conference Report Adopted - Senate (55 - 43)
10/02 HR 4101 Agriculture FY99 Appropriations bill Conference Report Adopted - House (333 - 53)
5/22 HR 2400 Transportation Reauthorization bill Conference Report Adopted - Senate (88 - 5)
10/01 HR 3616 Defense Department FY99 Authorization bill Conference Report Adopted - Senate (96 - 2)
9/29 HR 6 Higher Education Programs Authorization Extension bill Conference Report Adopted - Senate (96 - 0)
9/29 HR 4103 Defense Department FY99 Appropriations bill Conference Report Adopted - Senate (94 - 2)
6/04 S 1150 Agricultural Research bill Conference Report Adopted - House (364 - 50)
9/28 HR 4060 Energy FY99 Appropriations bill Conference Report Adopted - House (389 - 25)
9/28 HR 4103 Defense Department FY99 Appropriations bill Conference Report Adopted - House (369 - 43)
10/07 HR 4104 Appropriations bill FY99, Treasury, Postal Service Conference Report Adopted - House (290 - 137)
9/24 HR 3616 Defense Department FY99 Authorization bill Conference Report Adopted - House (373 - 50)
10/08 HR 4194 FY 1999 VA-HUD Appropriations Conference Report Adopted - Senate (96 - 1)
10/06 HR 4194 FY 1999 VA-HUD Appropriations Conference Report Adopted - House (409 - 14)
9/24 HR 4112 Legislative Branch FY99 Appropriations bill Conference Report Adopted - House (356 - 65)
6/24 HR 2646 Education Savings Accounts bill Conference Report Adopted - Senate (59 - 36)
9/15 S 2073 Juvenile Crime Control and Delinquency Prevention Act Bill Passed - House (280 - 126)
3/13 S Con Res 78 Saddam Hussein War Crime Prosecution bill Resolution Passed - Senate (93 - 0)
4/23 HR 2646 Education Savings Accounts bill Bill Passed - Senate (56 - 43)
5/05 HR 1385 Training Programs bill Bill Passed - Senate (91 - 7)
5/13 S 1260 Securities Litigation Bill Passed - Senate (79 - 21)
5/18 S 1723 Non-Immigrant Specialty Workers bill Bill Passed - Senate (78 - 20)
5/22 HR 2709 Iran Missile Sanctions bill Bill Passed - Senate (90 - 4)
7/09 HR 6 Higher Education Programs Authorization Extension bill Bill Passed - Senate (96 - 1)
7/21 HR 4112 Legislative Branch FY99 Appropriations bill Bill Passed - Senate (90 - 9)
9/03 HR 4104 Appropriations bill FY99, Treasury, Postal Service Bill Passed - Senate (91 - 5)
10/08 S 442 Internet Tax Freedom bill Bill Passed - Senate (96 - 2)
5/21 HR 3616 Defense Department FY99 Authorization bill Bill Passed - House (357 - 60)
6/25 HR 4112 Legislative Branch FY99 Appropriations bill Bill Passed - House (235 - 179)
12/19 H Res 611 Impeachment Resolution: Article Three Resolution Passed - House (221 - 212)
7/15 HR 3682 Child Custody Protection Act Bill Passed - House (276 - 150)
6/17 HR 3097 Tax Code Termination bill Bill Passed - House (219 - 209)
7/16 HR 4104 Appropriations bill FY99, Treasury, Postal Service Bill Passed - House (218 - 203)
6/05 H Con Res 284 Budget Resolution FY98 Resolution Passed - House (216 - 204)
6/04 H Con Res 285 Tiananmen Square Resolution Resolution Passed - House (305 - 116)
7/23 HR 4193 Interior Department FY99 Appropriations bill Bill Passed - House (245 - 181)
7/24 HR 4250 Patient Protection bill Bill Passed - House (216 - 210)
7/29 HR 4194 Appropriations bill FY99, Veterans Affairs, HUD Bill Passed - House (259 - 164)
5/14 HR 2431 Religious Freedom Bill Passed - House (375 - 41)
5/13 HR 10 Financial Services Act of 1998 Bill Passed - House (214 - 213)
8/06 HR 2183 Campaign Finance Reform bill Bill Passed - House (252 - 179)
8/07 HR 4380 District of Columbia FY99 Appropriations bill Bill Passed - House (214 - 206)
5/06 HR 6 Higher Education Programs Authorization Extension bill Bill Passed - House (414 - 4)
4/30 S 1502 Washington, D.C. School Vouchers bill Bill Passed - House (214 - 206)
4/29 HR 3717 Needle Exchange Funding Ban Bill Passed - House (287 - 140)
9/17 HR 4569 Appropriations Bill FY99, Foreign Operations Bill Passed - House (255 - 161)
4/02 S Con Res 86 Budget Resolution FY99 Resolution Passed - Senate (57 - 41)
9/24 HR 3736 Nonimmigrant Specialty Workers bill Bill Passed - House (288 - 133)
9/25 HR 4578 Social Security Account Protection bill Bill Passed - House (240 - 188)
9/26 HR 4579 Tax Cut bill Bill Passed - House (229 - 195)
4/01 HR 2400 Transportation Reauthorization bill Bill Passed - House (337 - 80)
3/31 HR 3579 Emergency Supplemental Appropriations bill Bill Passed - House (212 - 208)
3/30 HR 3582 Campaign Reporting and Disclosure Act of 1998 Bill Passed - House (405 - 6)
10/05 HR 4655 Iraqi Liberation Act of 1998 Bill Passed - House (360 - 38)
3/26 HR 3246 Small Business and Employee Fairness bill Bill Passed - House (202 - 200)
3/17 H Res 364 Human Rights in China Resolution Passed - House (397 - 0)
3/11 HR 1432 African Growth bill Bill Passed - House (233 - 186)
12/19 H Res 611 Impeachment Resolution: Article Three Resolution Passed - House (228 - 206)
3/04 HR 856 Puerto Rico Political Status bill Bill Passed - House (209 - 208)

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