Key Votes

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Vote Smart provides easy access to congressional and state voting records and maintains a collection of key votes grouped by issue. Vote Smart uses the following criteria to select key votes:

  1. The vote should be helpful in portraying how a member stands on a particular issue
  2. The vote should be clear for any person to understand
  3. The vote has received media attention
  4. The vote was passed or defeated by a very close margin
  5. Occasionally, if a specific bill is consistently inquired about on the Voter's Research Hotline, the vote will be added

Vote Smart provides a summary of the version of the bill text associated with each selected key vote. Our summaries are written by Vote Smart's staff and interns, who adhere to our strict policies and procedures in order to guarantee absolute impartiality and accuracy. They do not necessarily reflect the content of the final version of the bill, but rather the version voted on in that stage. While many procedural votes take place before a full chamber vote, our voting stages reflect the final reading of each chamber vote. Each key vote selection is reviewed by the project's community of advisors, who are political scientists and journalists from all fifty states.

For more information about the legislative process, see here.


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Date State Bill No. Title Outcome
July 11, 2024 National H J Res 109 Providing for congressional disapproval under chapter 8 of title 5, United States Code, of the rule submitted by the Securities and Exchange Joint Resolution Failed - House (228 - 184)
July 11, 2024 National H Res 1344 Finding that Merrick Garland, Attorney General of the United States, is in contempt of the House of Representatives for disobeying a certain subpoena. Joint Resolution Failed - House (204 - 210)
July 11, 2024 National HR 8772 Legislative Branch Appropriations Act, 2025 Bill Failed - House (205 - 213)
July 11, 2024 National H J Res 165 Providing for congressional disapproval under chapter 8 of title 5, United States Code, of the rule submitted by the Department of Education relating to "Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Receiving Federal Financial Assistance". Joint Resolution Passed - House (210 - 205)
July 11, 2024 National S J Res 89 A joint resolution to direct the termination of the use of United States Armed Forces for the construction, maintenance, and operation of the Joint Logistics Over-the-Shore pier on the coast of the Gaza Strip that has not been authorized by Congress. Joint Resolution Passed - Senate (48 - 46)
July 10, 2024 National HR 8281 Safeguard American Voter Eligibility Act Bill Passed - House (221 - 198)
July 10, 2024 National S 4554 Reproductive Freedom for Women Act Bill Passed - Senate (49 - 44)
July 9, 2024 National HR 7700 Stop Unaffordable Dishwasher Standards Act Bill Passed - House (214 - 192)
July 9, 2024 National HR 7637 Refrigerator Freedom Act Bill Passed - House (212 - 192)
July 8, 2024 National HR 5441 Long Island Sound Restoration and Stewardship Reauthorization Act of 2023 Bill Passed - House (333 - 51)
July 8, 2024 National HR 897 Alabama Underwater Forest National Marine Sanctuary and Protection Act Bill Passed - House (349 - 19)
June 28, 2024 National HR 8771 Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2025 Bill Passed - House (212 - 200)
June 28, 2024 National HR 8752 Department of Homeland Security Appropriations Act, 2025 Bill Passed - House (212 - 203)
June 28, 2024 National HR 8774 Department of Defense Appropriations Act, 2025 Bill Passed - House (217 - 198)
June 25, 2024 National H Res 901 Expressing support for democracy and human rights in Pakistan Resolution Passed - House (368 - 7)
June 25, 2024 National HR 7152 Divided Families National Registry Act Bill Passed - House (375 - 8)
June 25, 2024 National HR 2789 American Cooperation with Our Neighbors Act Bill Passed - House (368 - 19)
June 18, 2024 National S 870 Fire Grants and Safety Act Concurrence Vote Passed - Senate (88 - 2)
June 14, 2024 National HR 8070 Servicemember Quality of Life Improvement and National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2025 Bill Passed - House (217 - 199)
June 13, 2024 National S 4445 A bill to protect and expand nationwide access to fertility treatment, including in vitro fertilization. Cloture Not Invoked - Senate (48 - 47)
June 12, 2024 National S 138 Promoting a Resolution to the Tibet-China Dispute Act Bill Passed - House (391 - 26)
June 12, 2024 National H Res 1292 Recommending that the House of Representatives find United States Attorney General Merrick B. Garland in Contempt of Congress for Refusal to Comply with a Subpoena Duly Issued by the Committee on the Judiciary Resolution Passed - House (216 - 207)
June 11, 2024 National HR 2964 Wastewater Infrastructure Pollution Prevention and Environmental Safety (WIPPES) Act Bill Passed - House (351 - 56)
June 11, 2024 National HR 6543 No Hidden Fees on Extra Expenses for Stays (No Hidden FEES) Act of 2023 Bill Passed - House (384 - 25)
June 5, 2024 National S 4381 Right to Contraception Act Cloture Not Invoked - Senate (51 - 39)
June 5, 2024 National HR 8580 Military Construction, Veterans Affairs, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2025 Bill Passed - House (209 - 197)
June 4, 2024 National HR 8282 Illegitimate Court Counteraction Act Bill Passed - House (247 - 155)
May 23, 2024 National S 4361 Border Act of 2024 Cloture Not Invoked - Senate (43 - 50)
May 23, 2024 National HR 192 To prohibit individuals who are not citizens of the United States from voting in elections in the District of Columbia Bill Passed - House (262 - 143)
May 23, 2024 National HR 5403 CBDC Anti-Surveillance State Act Bill Passed - House (216 - 192)
May 22, 2024 National HR 4763 Financial Innovation and Technology for the 21st Century Act Bill Passed - House (279 - 136)
May 21, 2024 National HR 5863 Federal Disaster Tax Relief Act of 2023 Bill Passed - House (382 - 7)
May 21, 2024 National HR 3019 Federal Prison Oversight Act Bill Passed - House (392 - 2)
May 21, 2024 National S J Res 58 A joint resolution providing for congressional disapproval under chapter 8 of title 5, United States Code, of the rule submitted by the Department of Energy relating to "Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Consumer Furnaces". Joint Resolution Passed - Senate (50 - 45)
May 17, 2024 National H Res 1213 A resolution regarding violence against law enforcement officers. Resolution Passed - House (337 - 61)
May 16, 2024 National H J Res 109 Providing for congressional disapproval under chapter 8 of title 5, United States Code, of the rule submitted by the Securities and Exchange Joint Resolution Passed - Senate (60 - 38)
May 16, 2024 National HR 354 LEOSA Reform Act Bill Passed - House (221 - 185)
May 16, 2024 National HR 8369 Israel Security Assistance Support Act Bill Passed - House (224 - 187)
May 16, 2024 National HR 8146 Police Our Border Act Bill Passed - House (254 - 157)
May 15, 2024 National HR 3935 Securing Growth and Robust Leadership in American Aviation Act Concurrence Vote Passed - House (387 - 26)
May 15, 2024 National S J Res 57 A joint resolution providing for congressional disapproval under chapter 8 of title 5, United States Code, of the rule submitted by the Department of the Treasury relating to "Coronavirus State and Local Fiscal Recovery Funds". Joint Resolution Failed - Senate (46 - 49)
May 15, 2024 National H Res 1210 Condemning the Biden border crisis and the tremendous burdens law enforcement officers face as a result. Resolution Passed - House (223 - 185)
May 15, 2024 National HR 7530 DC CRIMES Act Bill Passed - House (225 - 181)
May 15, 2024 National HR 7343 Detain and Deport Illegal Aliens Who Assault Cops Act Bill Passed - House (265 - 148)
May 15, 2024 National HR 1797 Setting Consumer Standards for Lithium-Ion Batteries Act Bill Passed - House (378 - 34)
May 15, 2024 National HR 7581 Improving Law Enforcement Officer Safety and Wellness Through Data Act Bill Passed - House (356 - 55)
May 15, 2024 National HR 6571 Promoting Resilient Supply Chains Act Bill Passed - House (390 - 19)
May 15, 2024 National HR 6572 Deploying American Blockchains Act Bill Passed - House (334 - 79)
May 15, 2024 National HR 6960 Emergency Medical Services for Children Reauthorization Act Bill Passed - House (399 - 13)
May 15, 2024 National HR 4581 Maternal and Child Health Stillbirth Prevention Act of 2023 Bill Passed - House (408 - 3)
Date No. Title Outcome
7/11 H J Res 109 Providing for congressional disapproval under chapter 8 of title 5, United States Code, of the rule submitted by the Securities and Exchange Joint Resolution Failed - House (228 - 184)
7/11 H Res 1344 Finding that Merrick Garland, Attorney General of the United States, is in contempt of the House of Representatives for disobeying a certain subpoena. Joint Resolution Failed - House (204 - 210)
7/11 HR 8772 Legislative Branch Appropriations Act, 2025 Bill Failed - House (205 - 213)
7/11 H J Res 165 Providing for congressional disapproval under chapter 8 of title 5, United States Code, of the rule submitted by the Department of Education relating to "Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Receiving Federal Financial Assistance". Joint Resolution Passed - House (210 - 205)
7/11 S J Res 89 A joint resolution to direct the termination of the use of United States Armed Forces for the construction, maintenance, and operation of the Joint Logistics Over-the-Shore pier on the coast of the Gaza Strip that has not been authorized by Congress. Joint Resolution Passed - Senate (48 - 46)
7/10 HR 8281 Safeguard American Voter Eligibility Act Bill Passed - House (221 - 198)
7/10 S 4554 Reproductive Freedom for Women Act Bill Passed - Senate (49 - 44)
7/09 HR 7700 Stop Unaffordable Dishwasher Standards Act Bill Passed - House (214 - 192)
7/09 HR 7637 Refrigerator Freedom Act Bill Passed - House (212 - 192)
7/08 HR 5441 Long Island Sound Restoration and Stewardship Reauthorization Act of 2023 Bill Passed - House (333 - 51)
7/08 HR 897 Alabama Underwater Forest National Marine Sanctuary and Protection Act Bill Passed - House (349 - 19)
6/28 HR 8771 Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2025 Bill Passed - House (212 - 200)
6/28 HR 8752 Department of Homeland Security Appropriations Act, 2025 Bill Passed - House (212 - 203)
6/28 HR 8774 Department of Defense Appropriations Act, 2025 Bill Passed - House (217 - 198)
6/25 H Res 901 Expressing support for democracy and human rights in Pakistan Resolution Passed - House (368 - 7)
6/25 HR 7152 Divided Families National Registry Act Bill Passed - House (375 - 8)
6/25 HR 2789 American Cooperation with Our Neighbors Act Bill Passed - House (368 - 19)
6/18 S 870 Fire Grants and Safety Act Concurrence Vote Passed - Senate (88 - 2)
6/14 HR 8070 Servicemember Quality of Life Improvement and National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2025 Bill Passed - House (217 - 199)
6/13 S 4445 A bill to protect and expand nationwide access to fertility treatment, including in vitro fertilization. Cloture Not Invoked - Senate (48 - 47)
6/12 S 138 Promoting a Resolution to the Tibet-China Dispute Act Bill Passed - House (391 - 26)
6/12 H Res 1292 Recommending that the House of Representatives find United States Attorney General Merrick B. Garland in Contempt of Congress for Refusal to Comply with a Subpoena Duly Issued by the Committee on the Judiciary Resolution Passed - House (216 - 207)
6/11 HR 2964 Wastewater Infrastructure Pollution Prevention and Environmental Safety (WIPPES) Act Bill Passed - House (351 - 56)
6/11 HR 6543 No Hidden Fees on Extra Expenses for Stays (No Hidden FEES) Act of 2023 Bill Passed - House (384 - 25)
6/05 S 4381 Right to Contraception Act Cloture Not Invoked - Senate (51 - 39)
6/05 HR 8580 Military Construction, Veterans Affairs, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2025 Bill Passed - House (209 - 197)
6/04 HR 8282 Illegitimate Court Counteraction Act Bill Passed - House (247 - 155)
5/23 S 4361 Border Act of 2024 Cloture Not Invoked - Senate (43 - 50)
5/23 HR 192 To prohibit individuals who are not citizens of the United States from voting in elections in the District of Columbia Bill Passed - House (262 - 143)
5/23 HR 5403 CBDC Anti-Surveillance State Act Bill Passed - House (216 - 192)
5/22 HR 4763 Financial Innovation and Technology for the 21st Century Act Bill Passed - House (279 - 136)
5/21 HR 5863 Federal Disaster Tax Relief Act of 2023 Bill Passed - House (382 - 7)
5/21 HR 3019 Federal Prison Oversight Act Bill Passed - House (392 - 2)
5/21 S J Res 58 A joint resolution providing for congressional disapproval under chapter 8 of title 5, United States Code, of the rule submitted by the Department of Energy relating to "Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Consumer Furnaces". Joint Resolution Passed - Senate (50 - 45)
5/17 H Res 1213 A resolution regarding violence against law enforcement officers. Resolution Passed - House (337 - 61)
5/16 H J Res 109 Providing for congressional disapproval under chapter 8 of title 5, United States Code, of the rule submitted by the Securities and Exchange Joint Resolution Passed - Senate (60 - 38)
5/16 HR 354 LEOSA Reform Act Bill Passed - House (221 - 185)
5/16 HR 8369 Israel Security Assistance Support Act Bill Passed - House (224 - 187)
5/16 HR 8146 Police Our Border Act Bill Passed - House (254 - 157)
5/15 HR 3935 Securing Growth and Robust Leadership in American Aviation Act Concurrence Vote Passed - House (387 - 26)
5/15 S J Res 57 A joint resolution providing for congressional disapproval under chapter 8 of title 5, United States Code, of the rule submitted by the Department of the Treasury relating to "Coronavirus State and Local Fiscal Recovery Funds". Joint Resolution Failed - Senate (46 - 49)
5/15 H Res 1210 Condemning the Biden border crisis and the tremendous burdens law enforcement officers face as a result. Resolution Passed - House (223 - 185)
5/15 HR 7530 DC CRIMES Act Bill Passed - House (225 - 181)
5/15 HR 7343 Detain and Deport Illegal Aliens Who Assault Cops Act Bill Passed - House (265 - 148)
5/15 HR 1797 Setting Consumer Standards for Lithium-Ion Batteries Act Bill Passed - House (378 - 34)
5/15 HR 7581 Improving Law Enforcement Officer Safety and Wellness Through Data Act Bill Passed - House (356 - 55)
5/15 HR 6571 Promoting Resilient Supply Chains Act Bill Passed - House (390 - 19)
5/15 HR 6572 Deploying American Blockchains Act Bill Passed - House (334 - 79)
5/15 HR 6960 Emergency Medical Services for Children Reauthorization Act Bill Passed - House (399 - 13)
5/15 HR 4581 Maternal and Child Health Stillbirth Prevention Act of 2023 Bill Passed - House (408 - 3)

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