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John Hoeven's Issue Positions (Political Courage Test)


On The Ballot: Running, Republican for U.S. Senate (ND)


Official Position: Candidate addressed this issue directly by taking the Political Courage Test.

Inferred Position: Candidate refused to address this issue, but Vote Smart inferred this issue based on the candidate's public record, including statements, voting record, and special interest group endorsements.

Unknown Position: Candidate refused to address this issue, or we could not infer an answer for this candidate despite exhaustive research of their public record.

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Other or Expanded Principles & Legislative Priorities are entered exactly as candidates submit them. Vote Smart does not edit for misspelled words, punctuation or grammar.

Issue Positions

For Presidential and Congressional candidates who refuse to provide voters with their positions, Vote Smart has researched their public records to determine their likely responses. These issue positions are from 2022.

  • Rated 100% by National Right to Life Committee. (
  • "We remain committed to protecting the unborn and the health of mothers and opposed this legislation, which goes far beyond just codifying Roe v. Wade into law. The bill would have overridden current and future pro-life laws at the state level, including in North Dakota, removing nearly all protections for the unborn and effectively legalizing across the country, abortion on demand until birth. That's why we voted against this legislation and stopped this bill from becoming law." (
  • Voted in favor of S 3275 "Pain-Capable Unborn Child Protection Act." (
  • Voted in favor of HR 1 "Tax Cuts and Jobs Act." (
  • "Democrats continue to push this tax-and-spending bill at a time when inflation is high. . . .We know inflation is a tax on everybody. On your food, on your fuel, on your housing. It hits low-income people the hardest. Now, Democrats want to double down on that. By increasing taxes and increasing regulation, they are also running the risk of putting our economy in stagflation, which we haven't seen since the late "70s, early "80s. That really undermines the wages of working people. On top of all that, they have decided to give their wealthy friends in New York and California a big tax break. . . .They are giving a big break to their friends--the wealthiest people--while they increase inflation and make it more difficult for low-income people across this country. It makes absolutely no sense." (
  • Rated 100% by FreedomWorks. (
  • ""The Senate took an important step to provide hardworking, middle-class Americans with tax relief that will enable them to keep more of their paycheck and at the same time lower rates for small businesses, including our farmers and ranchers, so we can grow our economy and create more jobs with higher wages," said Hoeven. "Now that the Senate has passed its tax relief plan, we'll go to work with the House to deliver the best possible bill for hardworking Americans."" (
  • ""This waiver has served as an important flexibility for nutrition programs in North Dakota, helping to ensure children can access healthy, nutritious meals despite the challenges of the COVID-19 pandemic," said Hoeven. "Extending this waiver, which lifts restrictions on which areas are eligible for open site meal service through USDA's summer nutrition programs, will support families as we continue to safely re-open our economy."" (
  • Rated 11% by Alliance for Retired Americans. (
  • Signed Letter to Administrator Verma: "Millions of our constituents depend on Medicare Advantage for quality, patient-centered health care. Beneficiary enthusiasm for the program remains strong, with more than one in three seniors enrolled. This is due, in part, to private plans' ability to leverage best practices in care delivery, use robust data analytics, and implement proven value-based care and care management models. Medicare Advantage enrollees report a 91 percent satisfaction rate, with 74 percent of enrollees in plans rated four Stars and above." (
  • Voted against S Amdt 340 "Expanded and Improved Medicare For All Act." (
  • "The Constitution vests authority in the states to conduct elections. This bill takes away state authority and effectively nationalizes our election system. I don't believe North Dakotans want the federal government to determine how we conduct our elections. It would prevent states from enforcing commonsense Voter ID laws, while forcing states to allow ballot harvesting. At the same time, the bill would federally fund campaigns, giving political candidates taxpayer dollars. I believe states should run our elections, not be forced to use a one-size-fits-all federal approach." (
  • Rated 0% by Common Cause. (
  • Voted against S 2093 "For the People Act of 2021." (
  • ""The JUSTICE Act improves the training and accountability of law enforcement to strengthen public safety and work to prevent situations like what happened to George Floyd and other victims of excessive use of force," said Hoeven. "Instead of defunding the police, this legislation ensures that law enforcement has the resources necessary to protect and serve their communities with better training, accountability and transparency. We appreciate Senator Tim Scott for leading this effort in the Senate and look forward to working with him to ensure that law enforcement are able to do their job with good accountability to the communities they are entrusted to serve and protect."" (
  • ""The NDAA is about showing our support for the men and women in uniform who put their lives on the line to defend our nation," said Hoeven. "At the same time, it shows strength to our adversaries by authorizing important programs for our national defense. That includes ensuring we continue to modernize our nuclear forces, which is critical for the missions at Minot Air Force Base, support our Global Hawk mission at Grand Fork Air Force Base, as well as authorizing important projects and priorities for our National Guard. As a member of the Senate Defense Appropriations Committee, we'll continue working to fund these national security priorities."" (
  • "Our men and women in uniform defend us and our nation every single day. That’s why we need the Senate to bring up and promptly pass the NDAA – doing so supports our servicemembers, shows strength to our adversaries and ensures our nuclear triad remains effective." (
  • Rated 100% by Center for Security Policy. (
  • Voted in favor of S 1605 "National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2022." (
  • "This legislation is actually the regular highway bill with additional support for traditional hard infrastructure like roads, bridges, rail, airports, and broadband. Also, importantly it does not raise taxes and has pay-fors including repurposing of COVID-19 funds." (
  • ""The Theodore Roosevelt Regional Airport fills an important role supporting the growth we've experienced in western North Dakota," said Hoeven. "This runway expansion is a needed investment to help meet increased demand for both passenger and cargo air service from businesses and families, but also to facilitate the growing use of agricultural air service in the region. I appreciate the opportunity to see the progress on this effort firsthand."" (
  • Voted in favor of HR 3684 "Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act." (
  • "The administration's plan would increase the corporate tax from 21 percent to 28 percent, resulting in reduced wages, increased costs for consumers, and a reduction in economic growth." (
  • Rated 100% by FreedomWorks. (
  • Voted in favor of HR 1 "Tax Cuts and Jobs Act." (
  • Voted in favor of HR 748 "Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security (CARES) Act" (
  • ".@POTUS has signed the CARES Act. Vital relief & assistance is on its way to families, health-care professionals, ag producers, small businesses, tribal communities + essential industries all impacted by COVID-19. Thank you @realDonaldTrump." (
  • "The PPP has been a central part of our effort to support families and businesses during this public health emergency. This program has enabled people to keep their jobs and benefits, and allowed employers to cover their expenses throughout the COVID-19 pandemic. While we are turning the corner, this extension will help ensure that businesses that are still facing hardship can benefit from the program while giving the Small Business Administration the time it needs to work through the pending loan applications." (
  • ""Parents play a vital role in their child's education. They should be able to advocate before their local school board, consistent with their constitutional rights, and without threat of investigation by the DOJ," said Hoeven. "This resolution makes it clear that parents' rights to free speech should not be infringed."" (
  • Rated 0% by National Education Association. (
  • Signed Letter to Secretary Cardona: "Americans do not need or want their tax dollars diverted from promoting the principles that unite our nation toward promoting radical ideologies meant to divide us. This trend is already sweeping through K-12 schools nationwide in absurd ways. In February, the Oregon Department of Education advertised an "anti-racist math" workshop run by an organization which teaches that "white supremacy culture shows up in math classrooms" when "the focus is only on getting the "right' answer" and when "students are required to "show their work' in only one way." California's new statewide model curriculum urges teachers to lead students in a "Unity Chant" that prays to Aztec deities for "decolonization." Curriculum documents from New York discuss "cis-gender privilege" and "disrupting the Western-prescribed nuclear family."" (
  • ""As recent severe weather has clearly demonstrated, we need reliable baseload power sources that are available 24 hours a day, seven days a week, and are able to keep operating when power is needed most," said Senator Hoeven. "The wind industry is now commercially-viable, and the continued extension of the wind PTC further distorts energy markets away from critically-needed baseload power, like coal. That's why we reached a bipartisan agreement in 2015 to phase out and end this tax credit, and our efforts are about ensuring Congress follows through on this commitment."" (
  • Voted against S J Res 8 "A joint resolution recognizing the duty of the Federal Government to create a Green New Deal." (
  • "Today's announcement comes as the latest in Hoeven's efforts to support North Dakota's development of CCUS technology, which will benefit both traditional and renewable energy sources. To this end, Hoeven continues working to modernize the 48A and 45Q tax credits to help make CCUS projects more commercially-viable." (
  • "Let’s continue to build our energy future here in the U.S. 11,000+ jobs are directly impacted by the President shutting down the Keystone XL Pipeline & construction should continue. Whether you’re for traditional energy, renewable, or both– we need the infrastructure to move it." (
  • "It’s unreasonable & unworkable to force #farmers & #ranchers to measure waste emissions from livestock in a pasture. I urged @EPAScottPruitt to permanently address EPA’s livestock emissions regulations & protect ag producers from burdensome mandates: (
  • ""Americans are facing skyrocketing energy prices and record inflation. That's why we need pipelines and other facilities in order to get more natural gas to market, bring down energy prices and counter the reliance of our allies on Russian natural gas," said Hoeven. "In order for these projects to be built, developers need certainty that the goal posts won't change mid-process, leading to wasted effort, time and money. The two policy statements advanced by FERC threaten our ability to continue utilizing America's vast natural gas reserves, and I encourage our energy producers in North Dakota to provide FERC with feedback and urge the agency to roll back these harmful policies."" (
  • "I cosponsored bipartisan legislation to protect #farmers & #ranchers from measuring waste emissions from livestock – will prevent requirements that would negatively affect our #Ag producers." (
  • Rated 100% by Independent Petroleum Association of America. (
  • "Senator John Hoeven recently joined Senator Ted Cruz (R-Texas), and 24 additional senators, in signing an amicus brief in the case of New York State Rifle & Pistol Association v. Bruen. The brief states that the right to bear arms is included in the Constitution and the Framers made a policy choice explicitly removing the ability to question that choice from state and federal legislators. The brief argues that the State of New York's regulations that make it difficult to carry a firearm outside the home violates the Second Amendment's guarantee of the right to bear arms." (
  • Rated 100% by National Rifle Association (NRA). (
  • "We need to ensure that law-abiding Americans have the ability to defend themselves as provided under the Constitution. Infringing on the constitutional rights of law-abiding citizens will not prevent violence. Instead, the administration should focus on fully enforcing the gun laws that are already on the books, and ensuring communities have resources to address mental health issues." (
  • Voted in favor of S Amdt 271 "Obamacre Repeal Reconciliation Act of 2017." (
  • "Health ins. still in place; we took 1st step to repeal #Obamacare & replace it concurrently with better options – more choice, lower costs." (
  • "Instead of government run health care, our country needs a common-sense, market-based approach that empowers individuals to choose their health insurance plan and medical providers. I believe we need to implement health care reform policies that will encourage competition and reduce health care costs for all." (
  • Voted in favor of HR 6201 "Families First Coronavirus Response Act." (
  • "Built hundreds of miles of border wall" (
  • "The administration needs to enforce our nation’s immigration laws, resume construction of the border wall and work with Congress to ensure we have the infrastructure, personnel & tech. needed to secure the border." (
  • Voted in favor of S Amdt 1948 "Stop Dangerous Sanctuary Cities Act (Toomey Amendment)." (
  • ""I've been to the southern border and seen firsthand the surge of illegal immigrants crossing our nation's southern border," said Hoeven. "President Biden's decision to revoke Title 42 will make the situation drastically worse. The Biden administration needs to enforce the law and secure our southern border, and this legislation is about empowering our immigration officials to do just that."" (
  • Voted in favor of S 2193 "Stop Illegal Reentry Act." (
  • "We must enforce our immigration laws and put in place the necessary infrastructure, personnel and technology to address the ongoing crisis at the southern border. That’s what our time in the Rio Grande Valley last week was all about." (
  • "Republicans have made it clear: We would be willing and eager to support an Iran policy that completely blocks Iran's path to a nuclear weapons capability, constrains Iran's ballistic missile program, and confronts Iran's support for terrorism. But if the administration agrees to a deal that fails to achieve these objectives or makes achieving them more difficult, Republicans will do everything in our power to reverse it. Unless Iran ceases its support for terrorism, we will oppose removing and seek to reimpose any terrorism-related sanctions. And we will force the Senate to vote on any Administration effort to do so." (
  • "Iran must not be allowed to realize its nuclear ambitions, as it remains one of the largest sponsors of terrorism and represents an existential threat to our close ally Israel. Our legislation would ensure any new agreement with Iran is subject to Senate review, a critical step in maintaining the pressure needed to hold the Iranian regime accountable and protect our allies." (
  • Voted in favor of HR 3364 "Countering America's Adversaries Through Sanctions Act." (
  • Voted against S J Res 29 "A joint Resolution Providing for Congressional Disapproval of the proposed foreign military sale to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia certain defense articles and services" (
  • "I hope other countries in the region will follow the example set by this agreement to join Israel, the UAE and the United States in seeking to build a more secure and prosperous Middle East." (
  • "I joined my Senate colleagues in passing S. 1 – the Strengthening America’s Security in the Middle East Act. This bill strengthens our support for our closest Middle East ally, Israel, & helps position our nation to penalize bad actors in the region." (
  • Voted against S J Res 7 "Directing the removal of United States Armed Forces from hostilities in the Republic of Yemen that have not been authorized by Congress" (
  • "This agreement provides farmers and ranchers much-needed certainty with our two largest trading partners, helping to remove barriers and better ensure they receive fair treatment. That's why we worked promptly in the Senate to move USMCA forward, following a more than year-long delay by the House. I appreciate the efforts of my colleagues, who joined me in passing the agreement out of committee earlier this week and helped secure its timely approval in the full Senate." (
  • "GREAT NEWS: Joined my Senate colleagues in approving #USMCA today. Spent the last year making the case for getting this across the finish line for #NDag producers + our nation’s entire economy. This is tremendous news, a big week for trade." (
  • Rated 0% by Public Citizen. (
  • Voted in favor of HR 5430 "United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement Implementation Act" (
This candidate has responded to a Political Courage Test in a previous election. As a continued effort to provide the American public with factual information on candidates running for public office, these archived responses are made available here.
The Political Courage Test asks candidates which items they will support if elected. It does not ask them to indicate which items they will oppose. Through extensive research of public polling data, we discovered that voters are more concerned with what candidates would support when elected to office, not what they oppose. If a candidate does not select a response to any part or all of any question, it does not necessarily indicate that the candidate is opposed to that particular item.

Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding abortion.

a) Abortions should always be illegal.
b) Abortions should always be legal.
c) Abortions should be legal only within the first trimester of pregnancy.
X d) Abortions should be legal when the pregnancy resulted from incest or rape.
X e) Abortions should be legal when the life of the woman is endangered.
f) Abortions should be subject to a mandatory waiting period.
g) Require clinics to give parental notification before performing abortions on minors.
Regarding Items C, F and G, I oppose abortion except in cases of rape, incest, or if the life of the mother is at stake. Given current situation where abortion is legal, it should be limited to only within the first trimester of pregnancy, and it should be subject to both a mandatory waiting period and parental notification. Public funding of abortions and of organizations that advocate or perform abortions should be prohibited.

State Budget: Indicate what state funding levels (#1-6) you support for the following general categories. Select one level per category, you can use a number more than once.State Taxes: Indicate what state tax levels (#1-6) you support for the following general categories. Select one level per category, you can use a number more than once.

a) Education (Higher)
Greatly Increase b) Education (K-12)
Slightly Increase c) Emergency preparedness
d) Environment
Greatly Increase e) Health care
Slightly Increase f) Law enforcement
Greatly Increase g) Transportation and highway infrastructure
Slightly Increase h) Welfare
Maintain Status a) Alcohol taxes
Maintain Status b) Cigarette taxes
Maintain Status c) Corporate taxes
Maintain Status d) Gasoline taxes
Slightly Decrease e) Income taxes (incomes below $75,000)
Slightly Decrease f) Income taxes (incomes above $75,000)
Greatly Decrease g) Property taxes
Maintain Status h) Sales taxes
Maintain Status i) Vehicle taxes
Yes 1) Should state sales taxes be extended to Internet sales?
Yes 2) Should accounts such as a "rainy day" fund be used to balance the state budget?
No 3) Should fee increases be used to balance the state budget?
Regarding Item A, I support more funding for higher education, particularly to make college more affordable and to link it with our economic development efforts. Regarding Item D, we need to fund efforts to ensure good stewardship of our environment including renewable energy, energy conservation, CO2 sequestration and biomass research.
We have proposed a $300 million property tax relief and education funding reform plan.
Regarding Question 2, it's important to have a strong reserve fund, and it should be used to balance the state budget when necessary to avoid raising taxes or cutting essential services. That's why we are building a strong reserve fund.

Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding campaign finance and government reform.c) Do you support limiting the following types of contributions to gubernatorial candidates?

No a) Do you support limiting the number of terms for North Dakota governors?
No b) Do you support limiting the number of terms for North Dakota state senators and representatives?
1) Individual
2) PAC
Yes 3) Corporate
4) Political Parties
Yes d) Do you support requiring full and timely disclosure of campaign finance information?
No e) Do you support imposing spending limits on state-level political campaigns?
f) Should North Dakota participate in the federal REAL ID program?
g) Other or expanded principles

Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding crime.

X a) Increase state funds for construction of state prisons and hiring of additional prison staff.
b) Establish the death penalty in North Dakota.
X c) Support programs to provide prison inmates with vocational and job-related skills and job-placement assistance when released.
X d) Implement penalties other than incarceration for certain non-violent offenders.
e) Decriminalize the possession of small amounts of marijuana.
f) Minors accused of a violent crime should be prosecuted as adults.
X g) Support state and local law enforcement officials enforcing federal immigration laws.
h) Support hate crime legislation.
i) Other or expanded principles

Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding education.

X a) Support state funding of universal pre-K programs.
b) Support federal education standards and testing requirements for K-12 students (No Child Left Behind).
X c) Support state education standards and testing requirements for K-12 students.
d) Support requiring public schools to administer high school exit exams.
e) Allow parents to use vouchers to send their children to any public school.
f) Allow parents to use vouchers to send their children to any private or religious school.
X g) Provide state funding to increase teacher salaries.
h) Support using a merit pay system for teachers.
X i) Provide state funding for tax incentives and financial aid to help make college more affordable.
j) Support allowing illegal immigrant high school graduates of North Dakota to pay in-state tuition at public universities.
Regarding Item A, I support funding and development of pre-K programs in line with the recommendations of the Governor's Commission on Education Improvement.

Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding employment.

X a) Increase funding for state job-training programs that re-train displaced workers and teach skills needed in today’s job market.
X b) Reduce state government regulations on the private sector.
X c) Provide low interest loans and tax credits for starting, expanding, or relocating businesses.
X d) Provide tax credits for businesses that provide child care for children in low-income working families.
X e) Increase state funds to provide child care for children in low-income working families.
X f) Include sexual orientation in North Dakota's anti-discrimination laws.
X g) Include gender identity in North Dakota's anti-discrimination laws.
X h) Increase the state minimum wage.
i) Support laws that prevent employers from dismissing employees at will.
X j) Support financial punishments for those who knowingly employ illegal immigrants.
X k) Support increased work requirements for able-bodied welfare recipients.
X l) Increase funding for employment and job training programs for welfare recipients.
m) Support Workforce Safety and Insurance remaining an independent entity.
X n) Support giving the governor control of Workforce Safety and Insurance.
o) Support giving the insurance commissioner control of Workforce Safety and Insurance.
Regarding Item H, state minimum wage should be the same as the federal minimum wage. There is room to raise them.

Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding the environment and energy.

X a) Promote increased use of alternative fuel technology.
X b) Support increased production of traditional domestic energy sources (e.g. coal, natural gas, oil, etc).
X c) Support providing financial incentives to farms that produce biofuel crops.
d) Use state funds to clean up former industrial and commercial sites that are contaminated, unused, or abandoned.
X e) Support funding for improvements to North Dakota's power generating and transmission facilities.
X f) Support funding for open space preservation.
g) Limit carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases linked to global warming.
h) Enact environmental regulations even if they are stricter than federal law.
Regarding Item D, private and federal funds should be used first. In some cases, it may be necessary to use state funds. Regarding Item G, we must set achievable standards and work with industry to develop and deploy new technologies that will reduce greenhouse gases.

Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding guns.

a) Should background checks be required on gun sales between private citizens at gun shows?
Yes b) Should citizens be allowed to carry concealed guns?
c) Should a license be required for gun possession?
Yes d) Do you support current levels of enforcement of existing state restrictions on the purchase and possession of guns?
Yes e) Do you support current state restrictions on the purchase and possession of guns?
I believe that the right to bear arms is protected under the Second Amendment of the U.S. Constitution.

Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding health.

X a) Ensure that citizens have access to basic health care through managed care, insurance reforms, or state-funded care where necessary.
b) Guaranteed medical care to all citizens is not a responsibility of state government.
X c) Limit the amount of damages that can be awarded in medical malpractice lawsuits.
X d) Allow patients to sue their HMOs.
X e) Require hospitals and labs to release reports on infections that are a risk to public health, while not compromising patient confidentiality.
f) Legalize physician assisted suicide in North Dakota.
g) Support allowing doctors to prescribe marijuana to their patients for medicinal purposes.
h) Other or expanded principles

['Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding social issues.', 'Legislative Priorities']

No a) Should North Dakota recognize civil unions between same-sex couples?
No b) Should same-sex couples be allowed to marry?
c) Should North Dakota provide state-level spousal rights to same-sex couples?
Yes d) Do you support a moment of silence in public schools?
Yes e) Do you support voluntary prayer in public schools?
f) Do you support sexual education programs that include information on abstinence, contraceptives, and HIV/STD prevention methods?
g) Do you support abstinence-only sexual education programs?
h) Should the state government consider race and gender in state government contracting and hiring decisions?
i) Do you support affirmative action in public college admissions?
Yes j) Should North Dakota continue affirmative action programs?
k) Do you support state funding of stem cell research?
l) Do you support state funding of embryonic stem cell research?
m) Do you support allowing pharmacists who conscientiously object to emergency contraception to refuse to dispense it?
n) Other or expanded principles
1. Advance North Dakota economic development and creation of better paying jobs. 2. Provide strong support and funding for education. 3. Deliver more tax relief, especially property tax relief. 4. Support access and affordability to high quality healthcare for all North Dakota citizens We are committed to continuing to expand and diversify our economy to achieve these goals.

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